China Reference Works Online (CRWO)

A remarkable interactive collection from China

China Reference Works Online (CRWO) integrates Chinese encyclopedias, handbooks, thesauruses, dictionaries and similar reference tools into one searchable database. All terms are interlinked and deep linked to other resources. Offered via the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) platform, in-depth indexing, classification, and editing provide a useful online learning resource.

NEW Collection Available on the Nanjing Massacre. Learn more.
Reference Works

Key Stats

  • Language: Chinese with English interface
  • Number of Titles: over 8,000 volumes
  • Frequency: Updated twice a year
  • Format: Full text
  • Producer: Tongfang Knowledge Network Ltd.
  • Platform: CNKI (TKN)

About CRWO

Publications in CRWO are categorized according to 27 subjects:

Agriculture Medical Atlas
Arts Medicine
Chinese/Minority Languages Medicine
Chinese-English & English-Chinese Military Affairs
Culture Pharmacy
Economy Philosophy
Education Physical Culture
Famous People Politics
Geography Public Health
History Religion
Illustrated Handbook Science & Engineering
Law Social Science
Literature Traditional Chinese
Marxism & Leninism


Users can search across 26 search topics and 160 sub-topics. All terms are interlinked and deep linked to other resources. Navigation by title browsing and entry search, with basic, advanced, cross-database and cross-title search modes facilitate precise searches.

NEW! Special Collection Available:

Historical Materials on the Nanjing Massacre

For more than ten years scholars visited museums all over the world to gather documentation on the Nanjing Massacre (1937-1938). What they found includes historical materials and accounts of the atrocity by perpetrators, victims and more.

This documentation and research was compiled into a 72-volume set well-known among many scholars as The Collection of Historical Materials on the Nanjing Massacre 南京大屠杀史料集. Available now as an online resource in the CRWO database, scholars can take advantage of the platform’s enhanced searching capabilities to discover even more insights from this authoritative reference work.

The digital edition of the 72-volume set is available now for a one-time purchase. Discounted pricing is available. Contact us to learn more or request a trial.

About China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)

CNKI is the world’s most comprehensive online resource for accessing China’s intellectual output. This powerful platform is the product of Tongfang Knowledge Network, Beijing, and encompasses academic journals, dissertations, conference papers, news, and many other resources that put the knowledge of China in the sciences and humanities at your fingertips. With more than 25 million articles and growing every day, CNKI is a foundation for any serious research on China. CNKI is hosted in the United States by East View and updated daily.

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